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Credit Policy

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Section 1 - Purpose

(1) This document defines institutional policy regarding recognition of prior learning and the assessment of credit applications for courses delivered by Charles Sturt University (the University) and its partner providers. This policy is designed to ensure that credit practices are consistent and comply with all University obligations under relevant legislative standards and frameworks, including: 

  1. Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF)
  2. Higher Education Standards Framework (HESF)
  3. Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency (TEQSA)
  4. Higher Education Support Act (HESA)
  5. Education Services for Overseas Students Act (ESOS)
  6. National Code of Practice for Providers of Education and Training to Overseas Students (National Code).

(2) This policy is intended to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Students have pathways to study at the University from post-secondary education and accredited tertiary education institutions.
  2. The University contributes to open, accessible, inclusive and integrated post-compulsory education systems.
  3. The University facilitates students’ mobility between institutions, sectors, states and countries.
  4. Students’ previous formal and informal learning is recognised where it is current and relevant to the learning outcomes of a subject.
  5. Students are not required to repeat learning, but rather progress through a continuum of learning.
  6. Students can gain a qualification in the shortest time, provided that the quality, integrity and standing of the qualification are not diminished by the granted credit.
  7. Credit decisions are consistent, fair, evidence-based and the reasons for them are clear to students.
  8. There are review and appeal processes for credit decisions.
  9. Information about credit is available for current and prospective students, and maintained in accordance with the legislative requirements, standards, and frameworks listed above.


(3) This policy applies to current and prospective students, staff, and decision-making bodies of the University, as well as external agents and staff working with institutional delivery partners of the University.

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Section 2 - Policy 

Legislative requirements

(4) Credit applications will be assessed by the University in accordance with all relevant legislative standards and frameworks (as listed in the section above) and credit will only be granted where:

  1. students are not disadvantaged in achieving the expected learning outcomes for the course of study or qualification
  2. the integrity of the course of study and the qualification are maintained
  3. the credit will not breach requirements for professional accreditation of an award to which the course leads, and
  4. approved credit outcomes are consistent with this policy, and with the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF)Qualifications Pathways Policy’.

(5) Regular monitoring of credit outcomes will be undertaken by the University as part of formal course reviews and student performance reporting processes described in the Course and Subject Policy and the Course and Subject Quality Assurance and Review Procedure

(6) See the ‘Academic governance and credit delegations’ section of this policy for detailed information about credit roles and responsibilities within this University, including making credit decisions, managing precedents and agreements, monitoring credit outcomes, and approving exceptions.

Applications for credit

(7) The Credit Procedure states the process for applying for credit.

(8) The University will provide a written outcome in response to each application for credit, including reasons for the decision where an assessment of the applicant’s prior learning results in the requested credit not being granted.

Eligibility for credit

Admission or enrolment status

(9) Students may only submit an application for credit for a course in which they are:

  1. currently enrolled, or
  2. seeking admission.

(10) To be granted credit, prospective students must meet the minimum entry requirements of the relevant course. However, being eligible for credit towards a course does not guarantee admission to it.

International students

(11) To ensure international students are aware of the potential impact that credit may have on their overall course duration and student visa, they are required to formally accept any offer of credit made to them by the University, before any such credit can be applied to their enrolment. This is because credit may affect the dates of their confirmation of enrolment (COE) by potentially reducing the expected time required for completing their course, and therefore international students are advised to contact the Department of Home Affairs for information about how a grant of credit may affect their student visa.

Types of credit

(12) There are four types of credit outcomes that may be applied to a student’s enrolment in a course at this University, which are listed below:

  1. Transfer credit (TCR)
  2. Graded credit
  3. Proficiency credit (PCR)
  4. Forward credit (FCR)

(13) The Credit Procedure provides additional information about these different types of credit, including relevant supporting documents to submit with credit applications, and how they are recorded in student enrolment records and transcripts.

Transfer credit (formal learning)

(14) Transfer credit (TCR) is granted on the basis of prior formal learning, where students have undertaken formal accredited study at this University or another provider. 

(15) Transfer credit may be ‘specified’ or ‘unspecified’, meaning it may be applied to specific subjects, or to a certain number of points within a course. Where the source subjects cannot be directly matched to any particular subject in the target course’s structure, the transfer credit will be unspecified. 

(16) Where the prior formal learning consists of relevant subjects that have been completed in full at Charles Sturt University, transfer credit may be awarded in the form of graded credit, instead of being recorded with a TCR grade.

Graded credit

(17) Graded credit is a particular form of transfer credit that can be granted for subjects completed previously at Charles Sturt University, where the student’s original grade is recorded against the same subject in the target course.

(18) Graded credit is always ‘specified’, as it can only be applied where the target subject in the student’s current course is the same as the source subject, with the same name, requirements, and subject code.

(19) Where graded credit is applied, the original subject grade contributes to the student’s grade point average (GPA) in their target course.

Proficiency credit (informal and non-formal learning)

(20) Proficiency credit (PCR) is granted on the basis of prior informal and non-formal learning. A student may be granted proficiency credit where they demonstrate, to the faculty’s satisfaction, their proficiency in the learning outcomes based on:

  1. their previous non-formal or informal learning, and
  2. where the Course Director or Subject Coordinator considers it necessary, an assessment of their proficiency.

(21) Proficiency credit may be ‘specified’ or ‘unspecified’. Where the previous learning cannot be directly matched as equivalent to any particular subject within the target course, the proficiency credit will be unspecified.

(22) Not all courses or subjects at this University are eligible to accept applications for proficiency credit, so students are advised to contact their Course Director for information before applying for credit based on informal or non-formal learning.

Forward credit (provisional transfer credit)

(23) Forward credit (FCR) is a temporary form of potential future credit that is provisionally recorded in advance for approved study outside of a student’s current enrolment, which must be completed within a specified period of time. 

(24) Students may apply for provisional forward credit in circumstances where they intend to undertake study outside of their current course enrolment with the University, for which they will seek credit once this study has been completed.

(25) Applications for forward credit may be granted to students who apply in the following example circumstances:

  1. cross-institutional study within Australia
  2. study abroad and exchange enrolments outside of Australia
  3. transfer from one Charles Sturt University course to another, where the student is currently enrolled in subjects for their first course which are intended to be used as credit in the second course
  4. admission to a Charles Sturt University course, where the student is awaiting final results or is currently enrolled in subjects/courses at another institution, for which they will seek credit in their Charles Sturt University course, or
  5. concurrent enrolment in another course or single subject at Charles Sturt University.

(26) A student who intends to undertake cross-institutional study at another institution and seek credit towards their Charles Sturt University course must first apply for forward credit and gain approval before they enrol at the other institution, by submitting an online credit application for outgoing cross-institutional study via the process outlined within the Credit Procedure.

(27) Forward credit (FCR) is temporary and will expire if it has not been converted into transfer credit (TCR) within the required completion timeframe stated in the Credit Procedure. Students must complete the approved study and provide evidence of this completion to the University within this timeframe, or the forward credit may be removed from their enrolment.

(28) The Credit Procedure outlines the required process and timeframe for converting forward credit before it expires and includes the application process for outgoing cross-institutional study.

Specified and unspecified credit

(29) Where a student is granted specified credit towards a particular subject in their current course, they are not required to complete that subject as the granted credit counts towards fulfilling the same course requirements that a pass in that subject would meet.

(30) To be granted specified credit for a particular target subject, the student’s prior learning must be assessed as equivalent to the specific learning outcomes of that subject in terms of study level, knowledge and skills.

(31) To be granted unspecified credit within a course, the student’s prior formal learning must be assessed as being at the same level of study and volume of learning as the number of points for which the credit is applied.

Subject substitution

(32) Upon assessment of a credit application, the decision-maker may decline to grant credit but instead identify subject substitution as a more suitable way to recognise the student’s prior learning. Unlike credit, subject substitution does not reduce the number of points required to complete an award. See the Enrolment and Fees Procedure for enrolment information regarding subject substitution.

Credit towards a higher degree by research

(33) The Higher Degree by Research Policy and the Higher Degree by Research Procedure states the requirements for which a candidate for a higher degree by research (HDR) may have a reduction of their candidature time approved, on the basis of a prior period of candidature commenced by the student in a previous HDR course at this or another institution.

Credit limits

(34) Where a student internally transfers between courses within this University without completing their original course, there are no limits to the number of points for credit that can be granted for subjects completed in their previous enrolment, where those subjects meet the requirements of the new course structure and have not been counted towards the completion and graduation of any previous award.

(35) Any subjects completed elsewhere and/or Charles Sturt subjects that have been used to graduate with an award are subject to the credit limits published in the table below.

Table of credit limits for coursework courses

(36) The table of credit limits shows the maximum number of points for which credit can be granted within a coursework course at this University, where the source of the credit is:

  1. subjects completed at another institution
  2. subjects completed at Charles Sturt University in any previous enrolment that have already been counted towards an award
  3. subjects completed in an ongoing concurrent course enrolment at Charles Sturt University, and/or
  4. previous informal or non-formal learning.
Target Course Total points of course Maximum points for which credit can be granted Minimum points to be completed in the target course at Charles Sturt
Undergraduate Certificate / University Certificate*
32 points 16 points* 16 points
Diploma# 64 points 32 points# 32 points
Associate degree or diploma
(as Bachelor degree exit point)
128 points 64 points 64 points
Three-year Bachelor degree 192 points 128 points 64 points
Four-year Bachelor degree or 
Integrated Honours degree^
256 points 192 points^ 64 points
One-year Bachelor (Honours)^ 64 points 32 points^ 32 points
Graduate Certificate^ 32 points 16 points^ 16 points
Graduate Diploma^ 64 points 32 points^ 32 points
Master by Coursework (96 points)^ 96 points 48 points^ 48 points
Master by Coursework (128 points)^ 128 points 64 points^ 64 points
* Not including University Certificate courses that are less than 32 points in total.
^ Credit cannot be granted towards the research components within a coursework course.
# Exception exists for NSW TAFE credit agreement.

(37) The Course and Subject Design (Coursework) Procedure states the credit requirements for double degree courses.

(38) Transfer credit requests for previously completed subjects are not subject to the maximum credit limits listed in the table above where the source of prior formal learning is:

  1. subjects completed previously at Charles Sturt University that have not been counted towards an award (ie: have not yet been used to graduate from any previous course), and/or
  2. subjects completed previously at Charles Sturt University as part of an articulated set of courses (where the source and target courses each belong to the same articulated set). Credit beyond the maximum limits for these subjects may be granted towards a higher award in the set, even if the student has graduated with the lower award (but will not be granted for another award at the same level of study).

(39) However, where a student is concurrently enrolled in two ongoing courses at Charles Sturt University, any requests for credit between these courses can only be granted within the maximum limits for each course, as stated in the table above. 

(40) Academic Senate may approve setting a stricter credit limit for specific courses due to academic, industry, or professional accreditation requirements. This means that the maximum points for which credit can be granted within these courses would be set at a lower level than the maximum number of points listed in the table above.

Double counting rule

(41) Students cannot use the same previously completed subject as credit/advanced standing towards the completion of more than one course/award at each level of study, as this would constitute double counting of credit. Where a subject has already been used as credit/advanced standing once to graduate from a course at a particular level of study, it can only be applied as credit/advanced standing towards another course in the following circumstances:

  1. the target course is at a higher level of study than the previous course/award, and
  2. the source subject has not been counted as credit/advanced standing towards the completion of another course/award at this level of study before.

Restrictions on granting credit

(42) Credit will not be granted:

  1. for an incomplete subject (or towards any part of a coursework subject, including any individual elements, modules, or assessment tasks completed within a subject)
  2. for a subject with a fail grade
  3. for a subject where the final mark is below 50%, even where this may be considered a ‘pass’ in the country or institution in which the subject was completed
  4. for a subject with a grade that indicates the student’s performance was of a fail standard, although they may have been permitted to count the subject towards fulfilling requirements for an award (grades such as conceded pass, terminating pass, etc.)
  5. for the same subject more than once in each course/award
  6. towards the research components within a coursework course, or
  7. on the basis of credit that has been granted towards another course, as the student’s original prior learning must be assessed for each course and must meet the rules, limits, and recency requirements stated in this policy.

(43) A student cannot replace a completed assessment grade in a subject with a credit grade.

(44) Each subject can only be counted once in each course/award. If a subject has been completed as part of a student’s current enrolment in a course, it cannot then also be used as credit towards that same course. Subjects cannot be used as credit towards a target course that is also the source of that subject.

Recency requirements

(45) The University will not normally grant credit for prior learning completed more than 10 years before the date on which each student submits their application. See the Credit Procedure for information about assessment of recency requirements, including circumstances where the decision-maker may potentially determine it appropriate to grant credit outside of these requirements where sufficient ongoing proficiency in the relevant learning outcomes is demonstrated by the applicant.

(46) The Faculty Board may approve setting shorter recency requirements for specific courses in disciplines where knowledge and skills are changing frequently and/or accreditation requirements specify a shorter time frame for maintaining currency.

Additional restrictions

(47) Each course may have additional credit restrictions as required and approved by the relevant faculty to meet the specific needs of that program.

Returning to a course after termination of enrolment

(48) Where a student applies for admission back into a course they had started previously before a termination of their enrolment, any previously awarded credit in that course will be reassessed by the relevant decision-maker:

  1. the Course Director, for coursework students, or
  2. the Dean, Graduate Research, for higher degree by research students.

(49) The decision-maker may decline to reinstate credit that was previously granted in their original course enrolment where the recency requirements are no longer met, or where they consider the student needs to update their knowledge or skills. This may include subject substitution where the decision-maker deems it appropriate.

(50) For information about applying to return to study in a previous course after termination of enrolment, see the Admissions Policy and Admissions Procedure.

Returning to a course after exclusion

(51) Where a student returns to a course after exclusion, any previously granted credit that was approved before their exclusion period will be reassessed (as outlined above) to determine whether it can be reinstated with their enrolment in that course. See the Admissions Procedure for more information about applying to return to study after exclusion.

(52) Students must not participate in any study for a particular course during the period of time in which they are excluded from that course, and therefore any learning undertaken at any institution during their period of exclusion is ineligible to be used as credit towards that particular course once their exclusion has ended. Students may be able to undertake study in other courses while excluded from a particular course at this University, and any learning undertaken while excluded from one course may be used as credit in other courses that the student was not excluded from, however, that study is not able to be applied to the excluded course.

(53) Where a student has been excluded from the University as a whole, any learning undertaken at any institution while excluded is ineligible to be used as credit towards any course at this University once their exclusion period has ended. Students may, however, apply for credit based on any relevant prior learning undertaken before or after the dates of their exclusion period. 

(54) Where an applicant is seeking admission after exclusion, supporting documents identifying the reason and dates of their period of exclusion must be provided with the credit application. This is to ensure that credit is not granted for study during an exclusion period.

(55) Further information about exclusion as a result of misconduct or academic progress is available in the Student Misconduct Rule 2020 and the Assessment - Academic Progress Procedure.

Academic governance and credit delegations

(56) Delegates with the authority to approve credit outcomes within the maximum limits for each course (as defined in this policy) are listed in Delegation Schedule E - Academic and Research, under the Delegations and Authorisations Policy.

Credit decisions

(57) For coursework students, credit applications are assessed and decided by the Course Director of the target course (in which the student is currently enrolled or seeking admission), in consultation with the relevant Subject Coordinator.

(58) For higher degree by research students, credit applications are assessed and decided by the Dean, Graduate Research, on the recommendation of the student’s principal supervisor and the relevant faculty Sub Dean (Graduate Studies).

(59) Where a credit application includes a subject delivered by another faculty or teaching school, consultation with subject matter experts in the faculty or teaching school which delivers the subject is required.

Credit exceptions

(60) Applications for credit involving exceptions to the credit rules, limits, and restrictions stated in this policy may only be granted upon the assessment and approval of:

  1. Faculty Board of the relevant faculty for individual coursework students,
  2. University Courses Committee for a course or a cohort of coursework students, or
  3. chair of the University Research Committee for higher degree by research (HDR) students.

Credit precedents

(61) When approving an application for credit, credit decision-makers may also approve setting up their decision to be used as a precedent for deciding the outcome of subsequent credit applications based on the same target course and source of prior learning. This should be done in most cases, unless there are unique circumstances that make the decision unsuitable to be set as a precedent (for example, where a grant of credit is based on informal learning, which is likely to be unique).

(62) Where a credit precedent is being created and it includes a subject delivered by another faculty or teaching school, consultation with subject matter experts in the faculty or teaching school which delivers the subject is required.

(63) All credit precedents must be recorded in the central credit management system by the decision-maker.

(64) Approved credit agreements and articulation agreements are also in effect credit precedents that can be applied as long as the approval lasts.

Credit and articulation agreements

(65) Requests for establishing formal articulation agreements and credit agreements between this University and other providers must be reviewed by the Office of Global Engagement before they are submitted to the relevant faculty for assessment.

(66) For coursework courses, the Executive Dean of the relevant faculty assesses and approves the establishment or revision of articulation agreements and credit agreements, upon recommendation of the relevant Course Director.

(67) For higher degree by research courses, the Dean, Graduate Research assesses and approves articulation agreements and credit agreements, in consultation with the relevant faculty Sub Dean (Graduate Studies).

(68) Only Academic Senate, however, can approve the establishment of articulation and credit agreements that will result in the granting of more credit than the maximum limit for each type of course, as stated in the table of credit limits within this policy.

(69) Where a proposed articulation agreement or credit agreement includes subjects delivered by another faculty or teaching school, consultation with subject matter experts in the faculty or teaching school which delivers the subject is required.

(70) Where a proposed articulation or credit agreement includes Indigenous Australian content, the agreement must comply with the Indigenous Australian Content in Courses and Subjects Policy and requires endorsement and approval by the Indigenous Board of Studies.

(71) The Office of Global Engagement keeps a register of approved articulation agreements and credit agreements.

(72) The relevant faculty adds approved articulation agreements and credit agreements to the central credit management system and the student management system, so these can:

  1. serve as precedents for applying credit to students who enter by these pathways, and
  2. be published to prospective students in the central credit management system.

Applying credit precedents and agreements

(73) The following staff can apply a pre-approved credit decision without higher approval, where it is based on a formally established credit precedent, articulation agreement or credit agreement:

Credit decision Upon delegation of the Executive Dean, Deputy Dean or Course Director Upon delegation of the Executive Director, Student Experience
For a precedent where the same source course or subject(s) will lead to the same specified and/or unspecified credit Faculty delegate Admissions or credit officer
For a precedent where the original decision provided for some variation in the source course or subjects and in the resulting specified and/or unspecified credit Faculty delegate Nil
For a coursework credit agreement or articulation agreement Faculty delegate Admissions or credit officer
For a higher degree by research credit agreement or articulation agreement Dean, Graduate Research  Nil

Monitoring credit outcomes

(74) Each credit precedent and agreement must be reviewed by the faculty that teaches the target course and subjects within three years of initial approval or last review, or sooner if the source subject or course, or the target subject or course, changes.

(75) Faculties will monitor the effect of credit outcomes on the academic performance of coursework students to ensure that credit accurately reflects each student’s knowledge and abilities.

(76) The Office of Research Services and Graduate Studies will monitor the effect of credit on the academic performance of higher degree by research students, in consultation with the Sub Dean (Graduate Studies) of each faculty, to ensure that approved credit decisions accurately reflect each student’s knowledge and abilities.

Withdrawal of credit

(77) A student may request that credit be removed from their current course enrolment, but credit cannot be removed from any previously completed course.

(78) The University may initiate a review and withdrawal of credit in the following circumstances:

  1. where the credit was granted through an error in assessment
  2. where the credit was granted as the result of an administrative error
  3. where the student has not been making adequate academic progress, or
  4. where an investigation under the Student Misconduct Rule 2020 finds that credit was granted on the basis of false, withheld, or misleading information in the student’s credit application.

(79) The following roles may approve the withdrawal of credit granted in error:

  1. the Course Director, where credit is found to have been granted through an error in assessment for coursework students
  2. the Dean, Graduate Research, where credit is found to have been granted through an error in assessment for higher degree by research students, and
  3. the Executive Director, Student Experience or delegate, where credit is found to have been granted as a result of an administrative error.

(80) Where a student has not been making adequate academic progress, the Deputy Dean may undertake a review and approve the withdrawal of granted credit in consultation with the relevant Course Director, in order to provide the student with an opportunity to achieve specific learning outcomes.

(81) Where the University considers that a student may have provided false, withheld, or misleading information in their credit application, the original decision-maker will initiate an investigation under the Student Misconduct Rule 2020.

(82) The Credit Procedure provides detailed information about the process and requirements involved in approving the withdrawal of granted credit from a student’s enrolment.

Review of credit decisions

(83) A student who is dissatisfied with a credit decision and is able to provide additional information or documentation may request a review through the process described in the Credit Procedure.

Appeals and complaints

(84) Where a student wishes to appeal a decision made under this policy, or has a complaint about the quality of service or conduct of staff, the following policies apply:

  1. University Student Appeals Policy and University Student Appeals Procedure.
  2. Complaints Management Policy and Complaints Management Procedure.
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Section 3 - Procedure 

(85) The Credit Procedure supports this policy and should be read alongside it.

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Section 4 - Guidelines

(86) Nil.

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Section 5 - Glossary 

(87) For the purposes of this policy, the following terms have the stated meanings:

  1. Advanced standing – another term for ‘credit’, with the same meaning. See ‘credit’ for definition.
  2. Articulated set of courses – as defined in the policy library glossary.
  3. Articulation – where completion of a lower-level course meets the entry requirements for a higher-level course, or enables students to use subjects completed in their lower-level course as credit towards the higher-level course, where the higher-level course includes those same subject components in its course structure.
  4. Articulation agreement – a formal agreement within and between the University and another institution allowing students to move from one course to another, with or without credit.
  5. Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) – refers to the national policy for regulated qualifications in Australian education and training. It incorporates the qualifications from each education and training sector within Australia into a single framework that defines the requirements for each AQF study level and type of course that can lead to a formally certified qualification issued within Australia.
  6. Block credit – credit granted for whole stages or components of a course. Block credit may be specified or unspecified credit.
  7. Coursework course – as defined in the policy library glossary.
  8. Coursework subject – as defined in the policy library glossary.
  9. Credit – as defined in the policy library glossary.
  10. Credit agreement – a formal agreement regarding student entitlements to credit for courses within the University and between the University and another institution.
  11. Credit precedent – a credit decision that has been used to establish a rule for assessing subsequent applications for the same course and subject(s).
  12. Current student – a person who is currently enrolled in a course or subject with the University.
  13. Formal learning – learning that involves completing credit-bearing subjects at an accredited tertiary education institution.
  14. Forward credit (FCR) – a record of potential future credit that has been provisionally granted to a student in advance for approved study outside of their current course enrolment, on the condition that the student completes this study within the required timeframe.
  15. Graded credit – an internal form of transfer credit that can be granted for specified subjects previously completed at Charles Sturt University, where the recorded credit outcome includes the student's original grade for the source subject.
  16. Higher degree by research (HDR) course – as defined in the policy library glossary.
  17. Informal learning – learning gained outside of formal or non-formal learning, for example through work or leisure activities (e.g. charity or community group participation).
  18. Non-formal learning – learning through education or training that does not involve completing credit-bearing subjects at an accredited tertiary education institution, such as professional development or workplace training.
  19. Points – A measure of the volume of learning for each subject and course at this University. Sometimes known as ‘credit points’, ‘study points’ or ‘subject points’, each point is equivalent to between 17.5 and 20 learning hours per year, and most standard subjects are worth 8 points each, which equates to 0.125 EFTSL or 12.5% of an annual full-time study load per standard subject.
  20. Proficiency credit (PCR) – credit granted based on a student’s previous non-formal or informal learning.
  21. Prospective student – an individual who is considering attending the University or an applicant who has applied for admission but is not yet currently enrolled with the University.
  22. Recognition of prior learning (RPL) – the process of assessing a student’s prior learning (formal, informal and non-formal) to determine whether it meets the eligibility requirements for credit.
  23. Research components – as defined in the policy library glossary.
  24. Source subject or source course – the subject or course for which a student is seeking credit.
  25. Specified credit – credit granted towards a particular subject within a course.
  26. Subject substitution – where a change to one or more of the subjects in a course structure, as stated in the University Handbook, is deemed appropriate and approved for a particular student, for example, to recognise their prior learning. This may be granted as an alternative to credit.
  27. Target subject or target course – the subject or course towards which a student is seeking credit.
  28. Transfer credit (TCR) – credit granted on the basis of prior formal learning in accredited subjects completed previously.
  29. Ungraded credit – refers to the group of credit outcomes that are recorded with a credit grade (TCR, PCR, or FCR), rather than an assessment grade. Ungraded credit includes transfer credit (TCR), proficiency credit (PCR), and forward credit (FCR).
  30. Unspecified credit – credit that has not been applied to a specific subject but is rather applied to a certain number of points worth of course components, thus reducing the overall number of points remaining to complete that course.